ALK/CD246, EphB4, MuSK, Axl, EphB6, PDGF R alpha, DDR1, ErbB2, PDGF R beta, DDR2, ErbB3, c-Ret, Dtk, ErbB4, ROR1, EGF R, FGF R1, ROR2, EphA1, FGF R2 alpha, Ryk, EphA2, FGF R3, SCF R/c-kit, EphA3, FGF R4, Tie-1, EphA4, Flt-3/Flk-2, Tie-2, EphA5, HGF R/c-MET, TrkA, EphA6, IGF-I R, TrkB, EphA7, Insulin R/CD220, TrkC, EphA10, M-CSF R, VEGF R1/Flt-1, EphB1, Mer, VEGF R2/KDR, EphB2, MSP R/Ron, VEGF R3/Flt-4, EphB3
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Of the 90 unique tyrosine kinase genes identified in the human genome, 58 encode receptor tyrosine kinase proteins. Receptor tyrosine kinases have been shown not only to be key regulators of normal cellular processes but also to have a critical role in the development and progression of many types of cancer. Mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases lead to activation of a series of signalling cascades which have numerous effects on protein expression. Receptor tyrosine kinases are part of the larger family of protein tyrosine kinases, encompassing the receptor tyrosine kinase proteins which contain a transmembrane domain, as well as the non receptor tyrosine kinases which do not possess transmembrane domains.