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WHAT IS SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19?

Introduction

Coronavirus is a general term for a virus that exists widely in nature. Coronavirus was first discovered in 1968, and was officially named the Coronavirus family in 1975 by the International Virus Naming Commission. Under the electron microscope, they can be observed that there are corona-like radial protrusions on their surface, about 80-120 nm. It looks like a crown, so it's named Coronavirus. From the perspective of systematic classification, coronaviruses belong to the order Nidovirales, Coronaviridae, and Coronavirus.

Fig 1. Phylogenetic Analysis of 2019-nCoV and Other Betacoronavirus Genomes in the Orthocoronavirinae Subfamily (Na Zhu, et al. 2020)

Coronaviruses are divided into four genera: α, β, γ, and δ. The coronaviruses that infect mammals are mainly α and β coronaviruses; the coronaviruses that infect birds are mainly derived from γ and δ coronaviruses.

Of the coronaviruses discovered to date, only seven have been found to infect humans. Among them, HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 belong to the α genus coronavirus, and HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-HKU1, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV belong to the β genus coronavirus. Although both SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV belong to the β coronavirus, they are not the same.

Figure 2. Global Distribution of Human Coronaviruses. (A) Green, blue, brown, and purple represent the global distribution of the NL63, HKU1, OC43, and 229E human coronaviruses, respectively. (B) Red and yellow represent the global distribution of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, respectively. (Shuo Su, et al. 2016)

Figure 3. Visualization of 2019-nCoV with Transmission Electron Microscopy. (Na Zhu, et al. 2020)

Coronaviruses bind to host receptors through the S protein, which infects host cells. Coronavirus S protein has high diversity and complex mechanisms.

Studies show that SARS-CoV- 2/COVID-19 can enter cells through ACE2 receptors on the surface of cell membranes, which is the same pathway as SARS-CoV enters cells (Hansen Chen, et al. 2020). This also proves the close relationship between the origin of SARS-CoV- 2/COVID-19 and SARS-CoV, and belongs to the SARS-associated coronavirus.

Table. Receptors of some coronavirus

Virus Receptors Virus Receptors
HCoV-229E APN MHV mCEACAM
HCoV-NL63 ACE2 BCoV N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid
TGEV APN SARS-CoV ACE2
PEDV APN MERS-CoV DPP4
FIPV APN SARS-CoV-2 ACE2
CCoV APN

Related Products

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Targets Clone Applications Species Reactivity Cat.
SARS-CoV-2 N CBFYR-0117 ELISA, WB 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0117-FY
SARS-CoV-2 N CBFYR-0118 ELISA, WB 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0118-FY
SARS-CoV-2 S1 CBFYR-0119 ELISA, WB 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0119-FY
SARS-CoV-2 S1 CBFYR-0120 ELISA, WB 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0120-FY
SARS-CoV-2 S2 CBFYR-0121 ELISA, WB 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0121-FY
SARS-CoV-2 Spike CBFYR-0122 ELISA, WB 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0122-FY
SARS-CoV-2 Spike CBFYR-0123 WB, ELISA, IHC-P, FC, IF, IP 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0123-FY
SARS-CoV-2 NP CBFYR-0124 WB, ELISA, IHC-P, FC, IF, IP 2019 Novel Coronavirus CBMAB-R0124-FY
SARS-CoV Nucleoprotein CBMC-C0006 ELISA, IHC, FC, IF SARS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-0146-CQ
SARS-CoV Nucleoprotein CBMC-C0005 ELISA, FC SARS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-0139-CQ
SARS-CoV M CBMW-H1368 ELISA, WB SARS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-1726-FY
SARS-CoV E CBMW-H1506 ELISA, WB SARS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-1832-FY
SARS-CoV S CB2 ELISA, WB SARS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-006LY
MERS-CoV S CBMC-C0010 Neut MERS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-0904-CQ
MERS-CoV NP CBMC-C0009 WB, ELISA, IHC-P, FC, IF, IP MERS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-0192-CQ
MERS-CoV CBMY-C0423 ELISA MERS Coronavirus CBMAB-V208-C0435-YY
TGEV CBMY-C0251 ELISA Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus CBMAB-V208-C0254-YY
TGEV CBMC-C0711 ELISA Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus CBMAB-V208-1732-CQ
PEDV CB3275 ELISA, FC, WB Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus CBMAB-MD402-LY
PEDV CB3276 ELISA, WB Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus CBMAB-MD401-LY
FIPV CBMW-H1779 ELISA, IF, IHC, WB Feline infectious peritonitis virus CBMAB-V208-1679-FY
MHV-A59 nsp9 CBMW-H0671 IF, WB Mouse hepatitis virus CBMAB-V208-0753-FY
ACE2 CBYC-A210 WB, IP Human CBMAB-A0566-YC
ACE2 CBYC-A206 WB Human CBMAB-A0562-YC
ACE2 AC384 ELISA, WB Human CBMAB-A0559-YC
CEACAM16 SU-9D5 IHC-P, ELISA, FC Human CBMAB-C10865-LY
CEACAM5 PARLAM 4 FC, IF, IHC, WB Human CBMAB-C2218-CN
CEACAM1/5/6/8 TET2 IHC, ELISA, IF, WB, FC Human CBMAB-C2180-CN
DPP4 CBDH596 IF, IP Human CBMAB-DH596-LY
DPP4 D6D8K WB, IP, IF (ICC) Human CBMAB-CP0497-LY
DPP4 MM0249-1G24 WB, FC Human CBMAB-DH596-LY

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For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.