Activin A, Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), ErbB3, IL-1 R2, MMP-3, IL-9, L-Selectin (CD62L), MPIF-1 (CCL23), PDGF R beta, Siglec-5 (CD170), TIMP-4, ALCAM (CD166), CD14, E-Selectin, IL-10 R beta, IL-2 R beta (CD122), IP-10 (CXCL10), M-CSF R, NGFR (TNFRSF16), PECAM-1 (CD31), TGF alpha, VE-Cadherin (CDH5), CD80 (B7-1), CXCL16, Fas Ligand (TNFSF6), IL-13 R alpha 2, IL-2 R gamma (Common gamma Chain), LAP/TGF beta 1, MMP-1, PDGF-AA, Prolactin, TGF beta 2, VEGFR2, BMP-5, DR6 (TNFRSF21), ICAM-2 (CD102), IL-18 BP alpha, IL-21 R, Leptin R, MMP-13, PDGF-AB, SCF R (CD117/c-kit), Tie-1, VEGFR3, BMP-7, Endoglin (CD105), IGF-2, IL-18 R beta (AcPL), IL-5 R alpha, LIF, MMP-9, PDGF R alpha, SDF-1 beta (CXCL12 beta), Tie-2
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides, and cannot cross the lipid bilayer of cells to enter the cytoplasm. Cytokines have been shown to be involved in autocrine signaling, paracrine signaling and endocrine signaling as immunomodulating agents. Their definite distinction from hormones is still part of ongoing research. Cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumour necrosis factors, but generally not hormones or growth factors (despite some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell.