Adrenal Gland

The adrenal glands are two endocrine glands residing at the superior end of each kidney respectively. They are small in size and distinct in shape. The right adrenal gland is pyramidal in shape while the left one is semilunar or crescent-shaped and slightly larger. Each adrenal gland consists of two main regions: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. And the adrenal cortex itself is divided into three functional zones which are zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis, to produce distinct hormones. As the components of our endocrine system, they are responsible for the secretion of numerous hormones including steroid hormones, noradrenaline, and catecholamines adrenalin, which could help to regulate the stress response of the body or fulfill other important regulating functions. Some conditions such as infections, tumors or genetic mutations can cause adrenal gland disorders that result in the improper secretion of hormones. A variety of target molecules expressed on adrenal gland tissue have been used in diagnosis as well as detection of the adrenal gland related diseases.