Fig.1 Testicular cancer
Testicular cancer is the cancer that originates in the testicles. One of the primal signs of testicular cancer is often a swelling or lump in the testes. Although testicular cancer can be derived from any cell type found in the testicles, over 95% of testicular cancers are considered to be germ cell tumors (GCTs). Majority of the remaining 5% are sex cord-gonadal stromal tumours derived from Sertoli cells or Leydig cells. It is uncommon for testicular cancer to spread to other organs, except for the lungs. Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates among all cancers with an average five-year survival rate of 95%. Most testicular germ cell tumors have many chromosomes, and very often they are triploid to tetraploid. Blood tests can be used to identify and measure tumor markers (usually for those proteins present in the bloodstream) that are specific to testicular cancer. LDH-1, Alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin (the "pregnancy hormone") are the representative tumor markers used to spot testicular germ cell tumors.
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