Fig.1 Urinary bladder cancer
Bladder cancer, as of 2015, affects around 3.4 million people with nearly 430,000 new cases a year. Age of onset is most commonly between 65 and 85. Males are more easily affected than females. Tobacco smoking is considered as the main known contributor to urinary bladder cancer. There are newer non-invasive urine bound markers available as aids in the diagnosis of bladder cancer, including human complement factor H-related protein, high-molecular-weight carcinoembryonic antigen, and nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22).
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