The endometrium refers to the inner epithelial layer and its mucous membrane of the female uterus. Resting on the inner side of the myometrium, it contains a superficial, functional layer along with a basal layer. The functional layer is adjacent to the uterine cavity. With the influence of ovarian hormones, this layer undergoes periodic exfoliation and rebuilding in sexually mature individuals. During the early stage of embryonic development, the functional layer contributes to the blastocyst implantation and formation of decidua. The glands and blood vessels in the endometrium get massively increased, which leads to the form of the placenta. The basal layer, situated in the deeper of the endometrium and near to the myometrium, is not shed at any time during the menstrual cycle and from it the functional layer develops. Diseases associated with the endometrium are common in clinical diagnoses, such as endometritis, endometrial hyperplasia, or endometrial cancer. A variety of target molecules on endometrium tissue are used for the detection of related disorders.
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