Fig.1 Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is regarded as glandular cancer or adenocarcinoma, which starts when normal semen-secreting prostate gland cells mutation happens and changes into cancer cells. The majority of prostate cancers are slow-growing; however, some grow relatively quickly. The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other sites of the body, particularly the lymph nodes and bones. It may initially cause no symptoms. But in later stages it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, pain in the pelvis when urinating. The primary risk factors are age, obesity, and family history. Around 99% of cases occur in people over the age of 50 and the average age at the time of diagnosis is around 70. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are important risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have also been implicated in prostate cancer. The expression of Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry may be a significant predictor of patient outcome for men with prostate cancer.
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