The ovaries are a pair of ovum-producing organs in the female pelvic cavity, which are an important component of the female reproductive system. The two almond-sized glandular organs are situated at the opposite sides of the uterus and attached to the uterus by the ovarian ligament. The produced ova (or egg cells) are caught by the open ends of the fallopian tubes located beyond the lateral surface of the ovaries and transported to the uterus. The ovary consists of two main regions histologically: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The cortex, made of tightly packed connective tissue, is where the oocytes and follicles develop, whereas the medulla is primarily loose stromal tissue which contains main ovarian vasculature. The primary functions of the ovaries are to produce ova and secrete several female sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone which play an essential role in the development of menstrual cycle and the implantation of the embryo respectively. Conditions associated with the ovaries include ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts, and polycystic ovary syndrome. A variety of target molecules on ovary tissue are used in the detection of related diseases.