Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of human being. Humans usually have two pairs of parathyroid glands, positioned behind the right and left lobes of the thyroid respectively, which are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone, as well as calcitonin that produced by the thyroid gland, play essential roles in regulating the calcium level in our bodies within a quite narrow range so that the muscular and nervous system can operate normally. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism are states of surplus or insufficient parathyroid function, which may lead the abnormal blood calcium level or more serious functional disorders. Parathyroid tumor is one common kind of parathyroid disease, characterized by the big size of one (or more) parathyroid gland. Diagnosing of parathyroid disease is often based on the blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone levels in the body. Some biomarkers expressed on the parathyroid hormone tissue are utilized to detect the pathological changes in clinical and basic research.
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