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Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located at the front of the neck. It is composed of left lobe and right lobe which are connected by a narrow isthmus attaching to the front region of larynx and trachea. The thyroid gland tissue is divided into numerous microscopic lobules by the inner thin fibrous capsule. As an important component of the endocrine system, the thyroid gland mainly bears the function of producing thyroid hormones which regulate the body’s metabolism, especially where the cellular activity increases. In addition, the thyroid also secretes the hormone calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the body. The proper function of thyroid gland depends on having a good supply of iodine from the diet. The thyroid gland is prone to several problems like producing too much hormone (hyperthyroidism) or not enough (hypothyroidism), the formation of nodules or lumps within the thyroid, and even worse the presence of thyroid cancer. A variety of target molecules expressed on thyroid gland tissue has been used in diagnosis and detection of related diseases.