Fig.1 Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is a cancer originated from the cervix. Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth-most common cause of death from cancer among women and fourth-most common cause of cancer. At early stage, typically no symptoms are been found. However, later symptoms may include pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, or pain during sexual intercourse. While bleeding after sex may not to be treated seriously, it may also reveal the presence of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to about 90% of cases, followed by smoking. However, majority of people who have had HPV infections, do not develop cervical cancer. Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes for 10 to 20 years. Around 90% of cervical cancer cases are diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma, and a small number are other types. Some novel prognostic markers, like TBLR1, MicroRNA-497, have been studied recently.
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